NIMSET specialty terms (2023)

@marimphil wrote:

Character Name Specialty Related terms External link
(if not an internal link) Descriptor
Sign of Aaron Charles Dettie Aaron appendicitis surgery epigastric pain with pressure on McBurney's point
Sign of Abadie Jean Marie Charles Abadie endocrinology Graves disease levator palpebrae superioris spasm
Symptoms of Abadie Joseph Louis Irenee Jean Abadie neurology tabes dorsalis absence of pain when pressure on the Achilles tendon
Abderhalden's Response Emil Abderhalden, Obstetric Response of Pregnancy Serum; deprecated
A Abelin reaction Isaak Abelin infectious disease syphilis presence of arsenic antisyphilitics; deprecated
And Addis Counts Thomas Addis Nephrology Pyelonephritis Quantitative Cells and 24 Hour Casts. urine
Adie's pupil William John Adie neurology Damage to the ciliary nerve dilated pupil, poorly reactive but with normal accommodation nearby
Adson's sign Alfred Washington Adson vascular surgery thoracic outlet syndrome radial pulse destruction maneuvers
Law of Alexander Gustav Alexander neurology, neurosurgery, ENT vestibular lesions describes nystagmus in vestibular lesions
Allen's test Edgar Van Nuys Allen's vascular surgery, critical care[1] arterial supply of the hand tests for the presence of palmar ulnar-radial anastomosis (palmar arch)
Apgarscore Virginia Apgar Obstetric Assessment of Newborn Health
Apley Grind Test Alan Graham Apley Orthopedic Surgery Meniscal Injury Maneuvers To Cause Knee Pain
An Argyll Robertson student Douglas Moray Cooper Lamb Argyll Robertson neurology neurosyphilis [2] light-near-dissociation
A Arneth Count Josef Arneth hematology, nutritional folate deficiency lobulation of neutrophil nuclei
Asboe-Hansen sign Gustav Asboe-Hansen dermatology bullae extension of a bulla into adjacent skin without a bulla when pressed
Aschheim-Zondek test Selmar Aschheim, Bernhard Zondek obstetrics normal pregnancy synd/1834 on Who Named It? estrous response in a mouse injected with pregnant urine
Aschoff body Karl Albert Ludwig Aschoff rheumatology, pathology rheumatic fever foci of interstitial inflammation in the myocardium and elsewhere
Ashby technique Winifred Ashby hematology, pathology hemolysis synd/233 at Who Named It? agglutination test for erythrocyte viability
Auberger blood group Auberger (patient) hematology normal physiology synd/283 on Who Named It? Aua antigen
Auenbrugger sign Josef Leopold Auenbrugger cardiology pericardial effusion synd/284 on Who Named It? bulging epigastrium
An Auer substantiates John Auer hematology acute myeloid leukemia cytoplasmic inclusions in myeloblasts
Sign of Auspitz Heinrich Auspitz dermatology psoriasis spot bleeding when scraping scales
Austin Flint murmur Austin Flint cardiology aortic regurgitation mid-diastolic murmur audible at apex
B Babinski Sign Joseph Babinski Neurology Plantar Reflex Abnormal Kumar SP, Ramasubramanian D (December 2000). "Babinski's Sign - A Reappraisal". Neurol India 48(4): 314–8. PMID 11146592. Retrieved April 13, 2009 hallux dorsiflexion with fanning of the remaining phalanges after mild stimulation of the lateral plantar surface of the foot
B Bainbridge reflex Francis Arthur Bainbridge cardiology normal physiology increase in heart rate with increase in circulating blood volume
B Balbiani calls Edouard-Gérard Balbiani genetics RNA transcription synd/601 on Who Named It? a large chromosomal trait showing the site of RNA transcription
B Balance stab Charles Alfred Balance general surgery abdominal/splenic trauma left flank percussion dullness, LUQ, right flank percussion resonance
B Bancroft's sign Joseph Bancroft vascular medicine deep vein thrombosis anterior but not lateral pain compression of the lower leg
B Lamb body Robert Lamb ENT, neurology dizziness, vestibular dysfunction synd/595 at Who Named It? nystagmus caused by hot or cold irrigation of the ear canal
B Barlow maneuver Sir Thomas Barlow, 1st Baronet paediatrics, orthopedic surgery hip dysplasia dislocation hip adduction
B Bart Hemoglobin Barts Hospital Obstetrics, pathology points to specific cause of death in some stillbirths Loss of all four alpha-globin genes (alpha-thalassemia total) results in severely anemic stillbirths with small amounts of abnormal hemoglobin composed of four gamma subunits (Bart's hemoglobin)
B Bastian-Bruns sign Henry Charlton Bastian, Ludwig Bruns neurology transection of the spinal cord loss of muscle tone and reflexes below the level of the lesion
B Battle's sign William Henry Battle neurosurgery/traumatology basal skull fracture mastoid ecchymosis
B Beau's lines Joseph Honoré Simon Beau dermatology, multiple internal medicine, including trans nail groove trauma
B Beck's triad Claude Schaeffer Beck cardiology cardiac tamponade hypotension, elevated central venous pressure (CVP), distant heart sounds
B Becker's sign Otto Heinrich Enoch Becker ophthalmology, endocrinology thyrotoxicosis visible pulsation of retinal arteries
B Beevor's sign Charles Edward Beevor neurology, neurosurgery spinal trauma at T10, als,fsmd caudal displacement of the navel in cervical flexion
B Bekhterev-Jacobsohn reflex Vladimir Bekhterev, Louis Jacobsohn-Lask neurology of a lesion of the pyramidal canal grazing the dorsal radial skin, with the forearm in supination, causing flexion of the wrist and fingers
B Bekhterev-Mendel reflex Vladimir Bekhterev, Kurt Mendel neurology of a lesion of the pyramidal canal flexion of the fingers on percussion of the dorsal foot
B Bence Jones eiwit Henry Bence Jones hematologija multipli mijelom
B Benedict solution Stanley Rossiter Benedict endocrinology diabetes mellitus reagent for the presence of monosaccharides
B Berger wave (rhythm) Hans Berger neurology normal physiology electroencephalographic alpha wave
B Bezold-Jarisch reflex Albert von Bezold, Adolf Jarisch pharmacology, toxicological effect of certain alkaloids apnea, bradycardia, hypotension
B Bielschowsky head tilt test Alfred Bielschowsky neurology, ophthalmology cranial nerve lesion IV test for paralysis of the superior oblique muscle
B Sign of Bing Paul Robert Bing neurology lesions of the pyramidal canal extension of the big toe on the back of the foot with a needle
B Biot breathing Camille Biot neurology brain stem hernia rapid shallow breathing followed by periods of apnea
B Bitot spots Pierre Bitôt ophthalmology Vitamin A deficiency keratin deposits in the conjunctiva
B Bjerrum's scotoma Jannik Peterson Bjerrum ophthalmology glaucoma comet-shaped visual field defect extending in time from the physiological blind spot
B Blumberg's sign Jacob Moritz Blumberg surgery peritonitis return sensitivity
B Boas point Ismar Isidor Boas gastroenterology peptic ulcer dermal hyperesthesia to the left of T12
B Boas sign Ismar Isidor Boas gastroenterology acute cholecystitis dermal hyperesthesia in the lower angle of R scapula
B Bodansky Unit Aaron Bodansky Clinical Chemistry Blood Alkaline Phosphatase Concentration Unit
B Boston Sign Leonard N. Boston Ophthalmology Endocrinology Thyrotoxicosis Convulsive Downward Gaze ptosis
B Bouchard nodes Charles-Joseph Bouchard rheumatology osteoarthritis bony deformities on the dorsal side of the proximal interphalangeal joints
B Bracht-Wachter bodies Erich Franz Eugen Bracht, Hermann Julius Gustav Wächter cardiology infective endocarditis yellow-white spots in the myocardium
B Branham's sign Henry Branham pressing on the proximal part of the AV fistula leads to bradycardia
B Braxton Hicks contraction John Braxton Hicks obstetrics normal pregnancy "false delivery". sporadic contractions that start as early as the middle of the 1st trimester
B Brewer's infarcts George Emerson Brewer nephrology, pathology pyelonephritis dark red wedge-shaped areas on part of the kidney that resemble infarcts
B Brissaud reflex Édouard Brissaud neurology of lesion of pyramidal tract plantar stimulation causes contraction of tensor fasciae latae
B Broadbent's inverted sign Sir William Broadbent, 1st Baronet Cardiology Hypertrophy L atrial systole palpable on posterior chest wall
B Broadbent sign Walter Broadbent cardiology adhesive pericarditis recession of L inferior intercostal spaces
B Broca's aphasia Paul Broca neurology, neuropsychology developmental or other pathology of different frontal cortical areas expressive aphasia
B Brodie-Trendelenburg Percussion Test Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, 1st Baronet, Friedrich Trendelenburg General medicine, varicose vein surgery superficial vein is percussed proximally; if an impulse is felt distally over the vein, there is valvular insufficiency
B Brodie-Trendelenburg test Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, 1st Baronet, Friedrich Trendelenburg General medicine, varicose vein surgery determines the level of valve incompetence
B Brudziński nekteken Józef Brudziński neurologie meningitis nekflexie veroorzaakt heup- en knieflexie
B Brudziński cheek mark Józef Brudziński neurology meningitis pressure below the zygomatic bone causes flexion of the forearm
B Brudziński symphysis sign Józef Brudziński neurology meningitis pressure on the pubic symphysis causing knee flexion, hip flexion and leg abduction
B Brudziński reflex Józef Brudziński neurology meningitis passive flexion of the knee to the abdomen causes flexion of the contralateral hip and knee
Bruit de Roger Henri-Louis Roger pediatric cardiology ventricular septal defect loud pansystolic murmur
B Bruns ataxia Ludwig Bruns neurology lesions of the frontal lobe Difficulty moving feet in contact with the floor, tendency to fall backwards
B Bruns nystagmus Ludwig Bruns Neurology Cerebellopontin angle tumor, vestibular schwannoma nystagmus decreasing amplitude in lateral view
B Brushfield spots Thomas Brushfield ophthalmology, genetics Down syndrome or non-pathological gray-white spots on the edge of the iris
B Burton Line Henry Burton Toxicology Lead poisoning NEJM 354:e21 5/18/06 blue discoloration of the gum line
C Cabot rings Richard Cabot hematology lead poisoning anemia reticular threads in erythrocytes
C Caput medusae Medusa gastroenterology, surgery portal hypertension varicose veins radiating from the navel
C Cardarelli's sign Antonio Cardarelli cardiology, thoracic surgery dilatation of the aortic arch or aneurysm, mediastinal tumor left movement of the trachea causes palpable pulsation of the trachea
C Carey Coombs murmur Carey Coombs cardiology, rheumatology rheumatic fever mid diastolic murmur
C Carnett's Sign John Berton Carnett Primary Care, Surgery Abdominal Mass and/or Pain Am J Med Sci 174 (1927): 579-599 Supine patient raises head of bed;↑ pain - abdominal wall;↓ pain - intraperitoneal
C Sign of Carvallo José Manuel Rivero Carvallo cardiology tricuspid regurgitation increased inspiratory murmur volume
C Casal Collar Gaspar Casal Nutrition pellagra (niacin deficiency) Casal Collar on Medscape highly variable collar dermatitis characteristic of c3,c4 dermatomes
C Casoni test Tomaso Casoni infectious disease tropical medicine hydatid disease intradermal injection of hydatid fluid causing rash
C Celsus signs of inflammation Aulus Cornelius Celsus various inflammations 1. Redness (redness) 2. Tumor (swelling) 3. Heat (heat) 4. Pain (pain)
C Chaddock's reflex Charles Gilbert Chaddock Neurology Pyramidal lesion, corticospinal tract lesions Great toe extension with skin stimulation over lateral malleolus
C Sign of Chadwick James Read Chadwick obstetrics pregnancy cyanosis of the vulva, vagina and cervix
C Charcot Triassic Jean-Martin Charcot surgery ascending cholangitis jaundice, fever and chills, RUQ pain
C Charcot triad Jean-Martin Charcot neurology multiple sclerosis nystagmus, intention tremor, staccato speech
C Charcot-Leyden crystals Jean-Martin Charcot, Ernst Viktor von Leyden pathology any disorder characterized by proliferation of eosinophils, e.g., ascariasis, lysophospholipase crystals in various tissues
C Cheyne-Stokes respiration John Cheyne, William Stokes palliative care damage to the respiratory center fluctuation between apnea and tachypnea
C Churchill-Cope reflex Edward Delos Churchill, Oliver Cope cardiology heart failure pulmonary vascular distension causes tachypnea
C Chvostek's sign František Chvostek endocrinology hypocalcaemia palpation over the facial nerve causes abnormal muscle contraction(s)
C Claybrook's sign Edwin Claybrook Emergency medicine, surgery Blunt abdominal trauma Heart and/or breathing sounds heard through the abdominal wall indicate a ruptured intestine
C Joints of Clutton Henry Hugh Clutton pediatric congenital syphilis painless symmetrical hydrarthrosis, especially of the knees
C Triangle of Codman Ernest Codman oncology, orthopedic surgery, radiology osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma triangular subperiosteal growth
C Comby ticks Jules Comby pediatrics rubella whitish spots on the gums and oral mucosa
C Coombs test Robin Coombs hematology hemolytic anemia
C Coons Fluorescent Antibody Method Albert Coons Immunology Albert Coons at the National Academies Press Antibody Detection by Fluorescence Microscopy Using Fluorescein Labeled Antibodies
C Cornell's sign? neurology of the lesion of the pyramidal tract Babinski's sign - a reappraisal Neurol India 48(4):314–8. scratching the extensor tendon of the big toe elicits an extensor plantar response
C Corrigan Pulsation Dominic John Corrigan Cardiology Aortic Insufficiency Carotid Artery Pulsation with Abrupt Upward and Downward Phases
C Body Councilor William Thomas Councilor infectious disease yellow fever, viral haemorrhagic fever eosinophilic globules in the liver
C Courvoisier's law Ludwig Georg Courvoisier Gastroenterology Obstructive jaundice Palpable gallbladder with painless jaundice Probably no cholelithiasis
C Crichton-Browne sign Sir James Crichton-Browne neuropsychiatry 'general paresis' tremor in the corners of the mouth and outer corner of the eye
C Crowe's sign Frank W. Crowe dermatology neurofibromatosis type I axillary freckles
C Cruveilhier-Baumgarten lesions Jean Cruveilhier, Paul Clemens von Baumgarten Hepatology Cruveilhier-Baumgarten lesions around the navel
C Cullen's sign Thomas S. Cullen's surgery intra-abdominal hemorrhage ecchymosis around the navel predicts the onset of acute pancreatitis
C Curschmann spirals Heinrich Curschmann pulmonology asthma spirals mucus plugs found in sputum
C Cushing's triad Harvey Cushing neurology increased intracranial pressure increased systolic pressure, bradycardia, irregular breathing
D Dagher Maneuver Nabil Dagher trauma surgery penetrating pelvic trauma bimanual palpation of a foreign body lodged in the pelvis with one finger in the incision lateral to the anus and the other finger in the rectum
D Dahl's sign K.V. Dahl pulmonology COPD pigmented calluses on the front of the thighs (from leaning on elbows)
D Dalrymple sign John Dalrymple ophthalmology, endocrinology thyrotoxicosis synd/494 on Who Named It? widened palpebral opening
D Dance's sign Jean Baptiste Hippolyte Dance (pediatric) surgery ileo-cecal intussusception synd/3355 on Who Named It? empty RLQ (retracted right iliac fossa)
D Darier's sign Ferdinand-Jean Darier allergy, dermatology urticaria pigmentosa dermatography
D Dawson's fingers James Walker Dawson neurology multiple sclerosis [1] [2] characteristic finger-like appearance of the lateral ventricle on MR, CT or autopsy
D De Musset's sign Alfred de Musset cardiology aortic insufficiency Head nods to the rhythm of the heartbeat
D Dennie–Morgan fold Charles Clayton Dennie
DB Morgan dermatology atopic dermatitis Dennie's line at prominent crease under the lower eyelid
D The sign of Destot? orthopedic surgery pelvic fracture [3] ecchymosis above the inguinal ligament, in the scrotum or thigh
D Dix-Hallpike Test Margaret R. Dix, Charles Skinner Hallpike Otolaryngology Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo synd/3615 on Who Named It? Producing extreme dizziness after lateral movement of the patient's head in the supine position
D Döhle corpuscles Karl Gottfried Paul Döhle pathology various including trauma and neoplasms basophilic inclusions in the peripheral cytoplasm of neutrophils
D Sign of Doi Hitoka Doi neurology Eaton-Lambert syndrome recurrence of absence of deep tendon reflexes after a short period of maximal muscle contraction
D Dunphy's mark? appendicitis surgery [4] increased abdominal pain when coughing
D Duroziez's sign Paul Louis Duroziez cardiology aortic insufficiency double pain heard above the femoral artery when it is compressed distally (see Traube's sign)
E Elschnig spotovi Anton Elschnig ophthalmology hypertensive retinopathy
E Epstein Pearls Alois Epstein Pediatrics Normal Newborn Cystic Papules In The Palate
E Ewart's sign William Ewart cardiology pericardial effusion percussive dullness, egophony and bronchial breath sounds at the L apex of the scapula
F Sign of Faget Jean-Charles Faget infectious disease Yellow fever Typhoid fever tularemia brucellosis second Sign of Faget in Who Named It? an unusual constellation of fever and bradycardia
F Finkelsteinov test Harry Finkelstein reumatologische DeQuervainov tenosinovitis
F Forchheimer spots Frederick Forchheimer pediatrics rubella small red spots on the soft palate
F Fothergill's sign John Fothergill surgery rectus sheath hematoma anterior abdominal mass not exceeding midline and still palpable when abdominal wall muscles are tense
F Fox sign George Henry Fox gastroenterology hemorrhagic pancreatitis inguinal ligament ecchymosis (blood traces retroperitoneal)
F Frank Sanders sign T. Frank cardiology ischemic heart disease Wrinkle in ear indicates risk of heart disease (controversial)
F Friedreich's sign Nikolaus Friedreich cardiology constrictive pericarditis, tricuspid insufficiency collapse of dilated jugular veins in diastole
F Froment's sign Jules Froment neurology patient with ulnar nerve palsy has to hold paper between thumb and palm (by attempting to pull); the ability to do so is assessed
G Gallavardin phenomenon Louis Gallavardin cardiology aortic stenosis dissociation of musical and noise elements in ejection murmurs
G Gamna-Favre body Carlos Gamna,
Maurice Favre histology of lymphogranuloma venereum Gamna-Favre bodies on Who Named It? basophilic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies
G Gandy – Gamna noduli Charles Gandy,
Carlos Gamna histology of splenomegaly due to portal hypertension and sickle cell anemia Gandy-Gamna bodies on Who Named It? small yellow-brown foci in the spleen
G Pads by Garrod Archibald Garrod Dermatology Repetitive Extreme Interphalangeal Extensor Tendon Strain Thickening of the skin and tissue over the interphalangeal joint
G Gerhardt's sign Carl Jakob Adolf Christian Gerhardt Gerhardt's sign on Who Named It?'s+sign controversial: see references
G Goetz sign? (needed)
G Gonda's sign? neurology of the lesion of the pyramidal tract Babinski's sign - a reappraisal Neurol India 48(4):314–8. flexing and then suddenly releasing the 4th toe elicits an extensor plantar response
G Goodell's sign William Goodell obstetrics pregnancy softening of the vaginal part of the cervix during the first trimester
G Rule of Goodsall David Henry Goodsall gastroenterology, general surgery anatomical relationships of anal fistula, differentiation of fistula types
G Gordon's Sign Alfred Gordon Neurology of Lesions of the Pyramidal Canal Babinski's Sign - A Reappraisal Neurol India 48(4):314–8. squeezing the calf muscles elicits an extensor plantar response
G Gottron Papules Heinrich Adolf Gottron Rheumatology Dermatomyositis Pathological basis of the disease (8th edition) Robbins & Cotran scaling Erythematous eruption or dark red spots on joints, elbows and knees
G Gowers sign [3] William Richard Gowers neurology muscular dystrophy
G Graham Steell murmur Graham Steell cardiology mitral stenosis pulmonary regurgitation murmur in patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to mitral stenosis
G Sign of Gray Turner George Gray Turner operation retroperitoneal haemorrhage flank ecchymosis
G Griffith's mark? endocrinology Graves' ophthalmopathy (necessary) lag of the lower eyelid during upward movement of the eye
G Gunn's Sign Robert Marcus Gunn Ophthalmology Hypertension Gunn's Sign Code Who Named It? AV "nicking" or "nipping" in hypertensive retinopathy
H Sign of Hamman Louis Hamman thoracic surgery esophageal perforation with pneumomediastinum crepitus synchronized with heartbeat but no respiration
H Hampton's Nodule Aubrey Otis Hampton Lung Diseases, Radiology Pulmonary Embolism with Infarction Hampton's Nodule in Who Named It? wedge-shaped consolidation at the periphery with a base on the pleura
H Hampton's line Aubrey Otis Hampton Radiology, gastroenterology Ulcer Hampton's line in Who Named It? a barium swab indicating mucosal edema associated with an ulcer
H Sign Hannington-Kiff John G. Hannington-Kiff general surgery hernia obturator absent thigh adductor reflex with positive patellar reflex
H Harrison's frown Edward Harrison internal medicine rickets Harrison's sulcus in Who Named It? deformation of the ribs in the lower part of the chest
H Hatchcock sign? pediatrics, infectious disease mumps (necessary) tenderness behind the angle of the jaw (usually before swelling occurs)
H Heberden's node William Heberden rheumatology osteoarthritis same as Bouchard's nodes but above the dip joints
H Sign of Hegar Ernst Ludwig Alfred Hegar obstetrics normal pregnancy Softening of the cervical isthmus occurs between the 4th and 6th week (usually)
H Hess test Alfred Fabian Hess internal medicine capillary fragility Rumpel-Konchalevskii-Leede phenomenon or sign Who Named It? the appearance of petechiae after compression of the arm with a bandage or blood pressure cuff
H Hildreth's sign DH Dermatologic glomus tumor of Hildreth Pain relief at the tumor site following vascular occlusion of the limb, with acute return of pain on reperfusion
H Hippocrates faces the palliative care of Hippocrates who is dying
H Hippocratic fingers Hippocratic pulmonary medicine chronic hypoxia club-shaped distal phalanges
H Hirschberg test Julius Hirschberg ophthalmology strabismus corneal reflection centered (-) or off centered (+) on the pupil
H Hoffmann's sign Johann Hoffmann neurology of lesions of the corticospinal tract tapping the distal phalanx of the 3rd or 4th finger causes flexion thereof in the thumb
H Hollenhorst plaque Robert Hollenhorst ophthalmology hypertension, coronary artery disease and/or diabetes cholesterol retinal artery embolism(s)
H Homans sign John Homans thrombosis deep vein thrombosis knee flexed, ankle sudden dorsiflexion, popliteal pain
H Hoover signal (leg paresis) Charles Franklin Hoover neurology, psychiatry paresis of lower extremities distinguishes organic from inorganic etiology
H Hoover's sign (pulmonary) Charles Franklin Hoover pulmonology COPD inward movement of lower ribs during inhalation
H Howship-Romberg znak John Howship,
Moritz Heinrich Romberg obturator hernia surgery Howship syndrome on Who Named It? pain from an obturator hernia that extends into the knee
H Hutchinson's Spot Sir Jonathan Hutchinson Dermatologic Melanoma Hutchinson's Spot on Who Named It? precancerous facial pigmentation
H Hutchinson's pupil Sir Jonathan Hutchinson Neurology Oculomotor nerve injuries Hutchinson's pupil about who mentioned it? dilated pupil on the side of the intracranial lesion due to compression III. nerve
H Hutchinson's sign Sir Jonathan Hutchinson ophthalmology herpes zoster Hutchinson's sign 2 code Who Named It? a lesion on the tip of the nose that may indicate ocular herpes zoster
H Hutchinson's teeth [4] Sir Jonathan Hutchinson paediatrics congenital syphilis small, widely spaced incisors with incised bite surfaces
H Hutchinson's triad Sir Jonathan Hutchinson Pediatrics Congenital syphilis Interstitial keratitis Nerve Deafness Hutchinson's teeth
J Janeway Lesion Theodore Caldwell Janeway Cardiology Infectious Endocarditis Palmar or Plantar Erythematous or Hemorrhagic Papules
J Jendrassik maneuver Ernő Jendrassik neurology hyporeflexia compares the patellar reflex with and without distraction
J Sign of Joffroy Alexis Joffroy endocrinology exophthalmos in Graves' disease Sign of Joffroy I in Who Named It? lack of wrinkles on the forehead when the patient looks up with the head down
J John Thomas sign [5] ? various radiology, including Reiter's syndrome (required) penile shadow points on the affected hip (+) or unaffected hip (-) (2)
J Jolly test Friedrich Jolly neurology myasthenia gravis or Eaton-Lambert syndrome an electromyographic test that uses repeated stimuli to demonstrate fatigue in myasthenia gravis
J Jones Criteria T. Duckett Jones Rheumatological Criteria for Rheumatic Fever Used to Diagnose Rheumatic Fever
K Sign of Kanavel Allen B. Kanavel Orthopedics, Rheumatology tenosynovitis of the flexor tendon of the fingers (1) finger held in slight flexion, (2) fusiform swelling, (3 ) tenderness along the flexor tendon sheath and (4) pain on passive extension of the finger.
K Kayser-Fleischer prsten Bernhard Kayser,
Bruno Fleischer neurology, gastroenterology Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration) ring of brownish copper deposits at the corneoscleral junction
K Kehr's sign Hans Kehr trauma surgery splenic rupture referred pain to L shoulder
K Kelly's sign Howard Atwood Kelly operation visible reaction of the ureter to touch (method of identification)
K Kerley lines Peter Kerley radiology pulmonary edema
K Kernig Woldemar's sign Kernig neurology meningism, meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage synd/2200 at Who Named It? hip and knee fully flexed, knee extension causes pain and/or opisthotonus
K Koebner phenomenon Heinrich Koebner dermatology various disorders
K Koeppe nodules Leonhard Koeppe ophthalmology uveitis granulomatous nodules at the edge of the pupil
K Koplik sees Henry Koplik pediatrics measles
K Korotkoff sounds Nikolai Korotkov cardiology auscultatory sphygmomanometry Korotkov described 5 sounds. Only the first (onset of the audible sound, corresponding to the systolic pressure) and the fifth (the sound becomes silent, corresponding to the diastolic pressure) are of practical clinical significance (see, however: Auscultatory interval)
K Kussmaul respiration[6] Adolph Kussmaul endocrinology metabolic acidosis difficult deep breathing with normal or reduced frequency
K Kussmaul's sign Adolph Kussmaul cardiology various including right sided failure increased jugular distension on inspiration
K Kveim test Morten Ansgar Kveim pulmonary medicine sarcoidosis intradermal injection of lymph extract from a known patient; deprecated
L Lachman maneuver John Lachman orthopedic surgery anterior cruciate ligament injury modified anterior drawer test with knee in slight flexion
L Lada sign? obstetrics normal pregnancy (necessary) softening of the uterus; similar to Hegar's sign
L Lancisi's sign Giovanni Maria Lancisi cardiology tricuspid regurgitation giant v-wave seen in jugular vein
L Sign of Larrey Dominique Larrey rheumatology sacroiliitis pain in the sacroiliac region when sitting on a hard chair
L Lasègue's sign Charles Lasègue neurosurgery, orthopedics lumbar disc lesion, sciatica commonly known as straight leg raise test
L Leopold's maneuver Christian Gerhard Leopold obstetrics Leopold's maneuver at Who Named It? determining the lie of the fetus
L Leser-Trélat sues Edmund Leser,
Ulysse Trélat oncological malignant neoplasm Leser-Trélat sign on Who Named It? sudden appearance of multiple pruritic seborrheic keratoses
L Signal by Levine Samuel A. Cardiology by Levine A patient with a heart attack clenches his fist on his chest when asked to describe the pain
L Lhermitte's sign Jean Lhermitte neurological lesions of the dorsal columns of the cervical cord or tail medulla, MS, chemotherapy, Behçet's disease electrical sensation along the back and in the extremities with neck flexion or extension
L Liebermeister's Rule Carl von Liebermeister Internal Medicine Liebermeister's Rule at Who Named It? For every degree Celsius, the heart rate increases by 8 beats per minute
L Lisch nodule Karl Lisch ophthalmology type I neurofibromatosis yellow-brown hamartomas on the iris
L Lisker's mark? internal medicine deep vein thrombosis (required) antero-medial tibial sensitivity to percussion
L Sign of Litten Moritz Litten cardiology infective endocarditis eMedicine retinal exudate
L Lombard effect Étienne Lombard psychiatric bullying due to simulated deafness automatic increase in the volume of one's voice when speaking in noise
L Louvel's sign? internal medicine deep vein thrombosis (necessary) increased pain along the vein with valsalva; proximal pressure prevents this
L Lowenberg's sign? vascular medicine deep vein thrombosis (required) immediate pain when inflating a blood pressure cuff around the calf
M MacDonald triad John M. MacDonald psychiatry sociopathic personality disorder enuresis, arson and animal torture predict future criminal behavior
M Sign of Macewen Sir William Macewen neurology, neurosurgery hydrocephalus, brain abscess resonance on percussion fronto-tempo-parietal suture
M Magnan Sign Valentin Magnan Addiction Drug Cocaine Addiction Magnan Sign Code Who Named It? sensation of a foreign body moving under the skin
M Mantoux Test Charles Mantoux Infectious Disease Tuberculosis Intradermal Protein Derivative - Estimated Bile Diameter
M Marcus Gunn Student Robert Marcus Gunn Ophthalmology Neurology Severe retinal disease Optic nerve lesion anterior to chiasm Gunn Pupillary phenomenon on who named it? Relative dilation of the pupil when light falls on the affected side
M Markle sign? appendicitis surgery (necessary) RLQ pain on falling from tiptoe to heels
M Mayne's mark? cardiology aortic insufficiency (required) drop in systolic blood pressure of >15 mmHg when lifting the arm
M McBurney's point Charles McBurney surgery for appendicitis 2/3 times lateral to the line from the navel to the anterior superior iliac spine (corresponds to the junction of the vermiform appendix and cecum)
M McConnell's Sign M.V. McConnell cardiology pulmonary embolism echocardiographic finding of akinesia of the middle free wall of the right ventricle, but normal movement of the apex
M McDonald's plate? (needed)
M McMurray test Thomas Porter McMurray orthopedics meniscus tear McMurray's sign in Who Named It? knee extended, valgus tension applied, leg rotated produces a tactile or audible click
M Means–Lerman scratch J. Lerman, J.H. It means endocrinological hyperthyroidism, systolic heart murmur similar to pericardial rubbing
M Mees lines R.A. Tit toxicology arsenic or heavy metal poisoning transverse white line over nails
M Mentzer Index William C. Mentzer Jr. hematology microcytic anemia distinguishes iron deficiency anemia from beta thalassemia
M Miller Fisher test Charles Miller Fisher Neurology Normal pressure Hydrocephalus Improvement of cognitive function after CSF withdrawal during lumbar puncture used to confirm diagnosis
M Moniz sign António Egas Moniz neurology of pyramidal tract lesions Babinski sign - a reappraisal Neurol India 48(4):314–8. strong plantar flexion of the ankle elicits an extensor plantar response
M Möbius sign Paul Julius Möbius endocrinology thyrotoxicosis Möbius sign at inability to maintain convergence of eyes
M Muehrcke's Lines Robert C. Muehrcke Nephrology, Oncology Hypoalbuminemia, Chemotherapy Paired Transverse White Lines on Nail Bed
M Mulder's sign Jacob D. Mulder neurology, podiatry Morton's neuroma Transverse compression of the forefoot causes pain in the distribution of the affected nerve
Maneuver of M Müller Johannes Peter Müller pulmonology collapses part of the airway in the patient tries to breathe with closed nose and mouth (the opposite of Valsalva's maneuver)
M Müller's sign Friedrich von Müller cardiology aortic insufficiency Müller's sign in Who Named It? visible pulsation or movement of the uvula
M Murphy's Punch Sign John B. Murphy Urologie Perinefrisch abces Murphy's Punch in Who Named It? impactgevoeligheid in de costovertebrale hoek
M Sign of Murphy John B. Murphy's Cholecystitis Surgery Sign of Murphy in Who Named It? hesitation on inhalation while palpating the gallbladder
M Myerson's sign Abraham Myerson neurology Parkinson's disease inability to resist blinking when the glabella is percussed
N Rule of Naegele Franz Karl Naegele Gynecological Pregnancy Method to Estimate Due Date
N Nardi test George Nardi gastroenterology sphincter of Oddi dysfunction morphine and neostigmine administration reproduces sharp LUQ pain; not commonly used
N Nikolsky's ticks Pyotr Nikolsky dermatology various including pemphigus vulgaris light shear stress applied to the skin causes the formation of bullae
The O'Brien test? (required)
O'Donoghue's Triad D. O'Donoghue Orthopedics, Sports Medicine Knee Injury Coincidence of ACL Injury, Medial Secondary Injury, and Meniscus Tear
O Sign of Oliver William Silver Oliver cardiology aortic arch aneurysm caudal movement of trachea with systole
O Sign of Oppenheim Hermann Oppenheim neurology of lesions of the pyramidal tract Oppenheim's reflex in Who Named It? downward irritation of the medial tibia causes dorsiflexion of the big toe
About the Ortolani Test Marino Ortolani Pediatrics & Orthopedics Congenital Hip Dislocation Ortolani's Sign and Test at Who Named It? a palpable clatter on the moving side
O Osborn wave John J. Osborn (1917–) cardiology, emergency medicine hypothermia positive deflection at the QRS-ST junction
O Node of Osler Sir William Osler Internal Medicine various including SBE and SLE painful red lesions on the pads of the toes and sole surfaces
O Mark of Osler Sir William Osler internal medicine atherosclerosis falsely elevated blood pressure due to incompressibility of calcified vessels
Q Palla's mark? internal medicine pulmonary embolism pulmonary embolism in the merck online manual enlarged descending pulmonary artery on chest x-ray
P The Sign of Pastia Constantin Chessec Pastia Pediatrics Scarlet Fever The Sign of Pastia at Who Named It? lines of confluent petechiae in skin folds (associated with scarlatiniform rash and strep pyogenes)
P Patrick's test Hugh Talbot Patrick rheumatology sacroileitis Patrick's test in Who Named It? external rotation of the hip causes pain
P Peabody's mark C.N. Peabody Internal medicine Deep vein thrombosis Calf muscle cramp when lifting the affected leg with the foot out
P Pemberton's sign Hugh Pemberton Thoracic surgery retrosternal mass with superior vena cava syndrome, arms raised above head causing full face, jugular veins and inspiratory stridor
P Phalen Maneuver George S. Phalen Rheumatology, Hand Surgery Carpal tunnel syndrome 30-60 seconds of full forced wrist flexion causes symptoms
P Sign of Piskaçek Ludwig Piskaçek obstetrics normal pregnancy Sign of Piskaçek in Who Named It? palpable lateral protrusion at the junction of the fallopian tube and uterus; present at 7-8 weeks
P Plummers nail Henry Stanley Plummer endocrinology thyrotoxicosis Plummers nail in Who Named It? onycholysis, especially of the ring finger and little finger
P Sign of Pratt Gerald H. Pratt internal medicine deep vein thrombosis pain caused by compression of the posterior calf
Q Queckenstedt maneuver Hans Heinrich Georg Queckenstedt neurology spinal stenosis Queckenstedt phenomenon in Who Named It? bilateral jugular vein pressure during lumbar puncture causes a sudden increase in CSF pressure
Q Sign of Quincke Heinrich Irenaeus Quincke cardiology aortic insufficiency Quincke's capillary pulse in Who Named It? visible pulsation at the base of the nail capillaries
R Reynolds Pentad BM Reynolds Gastroenterology Ascending cholangitis Reynolds Pentad on Who Named It? Charcot's triad + hypotension and altered mental status
R Riesman sign David Riesman endocrinology thyrotoxicosis eyeball irritation
R Sign of Rigler[7] Leo Radiology of George Rigler, abdominal surgery pneumoperitoneum Sign code of Rigler Who Named It? gas lines the mucosal and serous surfaces of the intestine
R Rinne's test Heinrich Adolf Rinne ENT, neurology, audiometry hearing impairment Rinne's test in Who Named It? compares air and bone conduction to differentiate sensorineural from conductive deafness
R Sign of Romaña Cecilio Romaña Tropical Medicine Chagas Disease Sign of Romaña in Who Named It? painless unilateral periorbital swelling
R Romberg test Moritz Heinrich Romberg neurology lesions of the dorsal column, cerebellar lesions, alcohol intoxication Romberg's sign in Who Named It? inability to maintain the position of closed eyes
R Rose's mark? vascular medicine deep vein thrombosis (required) Warm, stiff skin sensation when the affected leg becomes trapped
R Test of Rosenbach Ottomar Rosenbach clinical chemistry bilirubinuria Test of Rosenbach in Who Named It? color created by adding nitric acid
R Rossolimo's sign Grigorij Ivanovich Rossolimo neurology of lesions of the pyramidal canal Babinski's sign - a reappraisal Neurol India 48(4):314–8. percussion of the tips of the toes causes excessive flexion of the toes
R Roth mocks Moritz Roth Ophthalmology, various internal medicine including SBE and systemic vasculitides Roth mocks Who Named It? retinal hemorrhages with pale centers visible on fundoscopy
R Sign of Rovsing Niels Thorkild Rovsing general surgery appendicitis Sign of Rovsing on Who Named It? palpation of the LLQ causes pain in the RLQ
R Rumpel–Leede znak Theodor Rumpel,
Carl Stockbridge Leede hematology capillary fragility Rumpel-Leede test on Who Named It? petechiae visible after tourniquet compression
R Sign of Russell Gerald Russell psychiatry bulimia nervousness scars on the back of one hand (contact with incisors during cleaning)
S Salus Sign Robert Salus Ophthalmology Hypertension Hypertension on Medscape retinal vein deflection at right angle joints due to lengthening or shortening of associated arterioles
S Schaeffer sign Max Schaeffer neurology pyramidal tract lesions Schäffer reflex in Who Named It? compression of the Achilles tendon elicits an extensor plantar response
S Schamroth Window Test Leo Schamroth Pulmonology Cardiology Chronic hypoxia Identifies club-shaped distal phalanges
S Schiller's test Walter Schiller gynecology cervical cancer Schiller's test at Who Named It? the affected areas of the cervix can not be painted brown with an iodine solution
S Schilling test Robert F. Schilling internal medicine pernicious anemia, celiac disease, other malabsorption disorders B12 radio test; rare
S Schirmer test Otto Schirmer ophthalmology keratoconjunctivitis sicca, as in Sjogren's syndrome quantifies tear secretion
S Schober's test Paul Schober physiology, rheumatology, orthopedics various disorders of the lumbar vertebrae Schober's sign in Who Named It? quantifies lumbar flexion
S Triangle of Sherren James Sherren Appendicitis Surgery of Sherren Triangle of Sherren on Who Named It? area of ​​hyperesthesia above the lower right abdomen
S Shone Complex John D. Shone Cardiology Congenital Heart Defect Supravalvular Mitral Annulus Parachute Mitral Valve Deformity Subaortic Stenosis and Coarctation of the Aorta
S Siegrist streaks August Siegrist ophthalmology malignant hypertension hyperpigmented streaks parallel to the choroidal vessels
S Simmonds Test Franklin Adin Simmonds Orthopedics Achilles Tendon Rupture Compression of the lower leg does not produce plantar flexion
S Sims-Huhner test Harry M. Sims, Max Huhner reproductive medicine infertility Sims-Huhner test in Who Named It? determination of the number and motility of sperm in a sample taken from the cervical canal within one hour after sexual intercourse
S Sister Mary Joseph Button [8] Sister Mary Joseph Dempsey (née Julia Dempsey) oncology various abdominal malignancies palpable lymph node in the navel
S Spurling Test Roy Glenwood Spurling Neurology Cervical Radiculopathy Spurling Maneuver And Sign Up Who Named It? axial compression and rotation of the cervical spine to the side of the symptom causes pain
S Stellwag's sign Karl Stellwag von Carion endocrinology thyrotoxicosis infrequent and/or incomplete blinking, followed by Dalrymple's sign
S Still's murmur Sir George Frederick Still pediatric cardiology subaortic stenosis, small VSD Still's murmur on Who Named It? systolic ejection sound; vibrational/musical; it is best heard at the lower left edge of the sternum
S Stransky's mark? neurology of the lesion of the pyramidal tract Babinski's sign - a reappraisal Neurol India 48(4):314–8. sudden abduction and release of the little toe causes an extensor plantar response
S Stroop test John Ridley Stroop neuropsychology different, including ADHD and schizophrenia reaction time to incongruent stimuli (e.g. the word red written in blue)
S Sign of Strümpell Adolph Strümpell neurology of spastic paresis of the lower extremities Sign of Strümpell I in Who Named It? failure of sudden passive flexion of the hip and/or knee to induce dorsiflexion and adduction of the foot
T Terry's nails R. Terry internal medicine various including liver failure white 'sharpened' nails; absence of lunula
T Terry-Thomas sign Terry-Thomas Orthopedics Scapho-lunate dissociation Atlas of signs in musculoskeletal radiology Gap between scaphoid and lunate on AP wrist X-ray
T Thomas Test Hugh Owen Thomas Orthopedics Fixed Hip Flexion Deformity Patient supine flexes one hip while the other leg remains straight; back arches if there is flexion deformity
T Throckmorton Reflex Tom Bentley Throckmorton Neurology of Lesions of the Pyramidal Canal Babinski's Sign - A Reappraisal Neurol India 48(4):314–8. pressure on the dorsal toe joint of the MTP elicits an extensor plantar response
T Tinel's sign Jules Tinel neurology neuritis, compression disorders 'DTP' - distal tingling on percussion
T Paresis of Todd Robert Bentley Todd neurology epileptic disorders focal weakness up to 48 hours post-seizure
T Traube's sign Ludwig Traube clear splenomegaly dull percussion sound across Traube's space
T Trendelenburg sign Friedrich Trendelenburg neurology inferior gluteal palsy, other causes of hip abductor weakness pelvic tilt contralateral to 'standing leg'
T Sign of Troisier Charles Emile Troisier internal medicine, oncology Various malignant tumors of the abdomen, especially gastric cancer Node or sign of Troisier in Who Named It? Enlargement of the left supraclavicular lymph node (= Virchow's node)
T Trousseau sign of malignancy Armand Trousseau internal medicine various malignancies including spontaneous pancreatic thrombosis multiple veins including portal circulation
T Trousseau sign of latent tetany Armand Trousseau internal medicine, endocrinology hypocalcemia Trendelenburg phenomenon in Who Named It? in hypocalcemia, occlusion of the brachial artery causes carpal spasm
U The phenomenon of Uhthoff Wilhelm Uhthoff neurology multiple sclerosis The symptom of Uhthoff in Who Named It? ↑ for neurological symptoms on exertion or other increase in body temperature
In the Unterberger test Siegfried Unterberger neurology, ENT vestibular lesions, the patient walks in place with eyes closed; the direction of rotation indicates a vestibular lesion on that side
V node of Virchow Rudolf Virchow internal medicine, oncology Various abdominal malignancies, especially gastric cancer Node of Virchow in Who Named It? Enlargement of the left supraclavicular lymph node (= Troisier sign)
V Triad of Virchow Rudolf Virchow hematology etiology of thrombosis Hypercoagulability, hemodynamic changes (stasis, turbulence) and endothelial injury/dysfunction
V von Braun-Fernwald sign Karl von Braun-Fernwald obstetrics pregnancy softening of the fundus of the uterus at the implantation site at 4-5 weeks of pregnancy
V Von Graefe sign Albrecht von Graefe endocrinology Graves' disease 'lid lag'; immobility of the upper eyelid when looking down
W Wada test Juhn Atsushi Wada neurology epilepsy, anatomical lesions of the cerebrum Wada test on Who Named It? a short-acting barbiturate injected into the internal carotid artery; lateralizes language function
W Signs of Waddell G. Waddell primary care, psychiatry chronic pain identifying non-organic sources of low back pain
W Waddell's triad J.P. Waddell pediatric trauma Child pedestrian struck by motor vehicle Head trauma, thoracic and/or abdominal trauma, femoral fracture
W Watson water hammer pulse Thomas Watson cardiology aortic regurgitation J. Suvarna Watson water hammer pulse Journal of Postgraduate Medicine 2008-04-01 limitation of forceful pulse caused by postural maneuvers
W sign Westermark? pulmonology pulmonary embolism Area of ​​oligemia on chest x-ray
W Whipple's triad Allen Whipple endocrinology hypoglycaemia 1. symptoms associated with hypoglycaemia 2. measured low serum glucose 3. relief of symptoms by administration of glucose p.o. or iv
W Striae of Wickham Louis Frédéric Wickham dermatology lichen planus white or grayish lines on lichen planus lesions
W Widal test Georges-Fernand Widal microbiology enteric fever serum agglutination; deprecated(?)
W Sign of Winterbottom Thomas Masterman Winterbottom tropical medicine trypanosomiasis posterior cervical chain adenopathy
W Wolff-Parkinson-White triade Sir John Parkinson,
Paul Dudley White,
Louis Wolff Cardiology Supraventricular Tachycardia Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Who Named It? pre-excitation on the ECG
W Wright maneuver? (needed)
Y Yeoman's test? rheumatology sacroiliitis (necessary) sacroiliac pain during ilium rotation and hip extension

washout mechanism in niacin
Some of the effects of niacin on free fatty acids may be due to its properties as a high-affinity agonist for the G protein-coupled receptor, GPR109A protein-regulated macrophage interferon-γ (PUMA-G) in mice (20-22). In humans, GPR109A is expressed in adipocytes, dermal immune cells (Langerhans), and macrophages, but not in the liver (23). Mice lacking the PUMA-G GPR109A receptor do not show improvements in lipid parameters after niacin treatment (21). It is unclear whether this mechanism works in humans because of the rebound lipolysis that occurs after an acute initial decline (24). There is strong evidence that activation of the GPR109A receptor (12) in Langerhans cells (13) leads to flushing, although the antilipolytic effects of niacin are likely mediated via the GPR109A receptor in adipocytes.
A significant portion of niacin's flushing effects are due to activation of the niacin receptor G protein-coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A) in dermal Langerhans cells (12,13), which leads to the production of prostaglandins, including prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which act on the receptors in the capillaries. Erythema is characterized by cutaneous vasodilation and manifests as redness or warmth of the skin, sometimes accompanied by tingling or itching. The onset of redness can come on quickly and usually lasts about 1 hour. This is a transient, non-allergic reaction, but may cause discomfort to the patient. Mice lacking the PUMA-G GPR109A receptor do not flush when given niacin, but may flush after the receptor is restored in immune cells following bone marrow transplantation from normal mice
Flushing is not unique to niacin; it is also commonly reported by patients taking phosphodiesterase inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), adenosine and tretinoin

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is defined as a disease caused by tubercle bacilli that are resistant to both rifampicin and isoniazid (two major first-line drugs) in terms of culture and susceptibility reporting. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (EXDR-TB) is defined as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis that is also resistant to at least three of the six classes of second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs.
After the spine, the load-bearing joints of the lower extremities, such as the knee, hip, and ankle, are the most common sites affected by osteoarticular tuberculosis.
Radiologically, metaphyseal infection (osteomyelitis) manifesting as typical osteolytic areas adjacent to the joint surfaces. Tuberculous arthritis in the early stages is represented by non-specific findings such as osteoporosis and soft tissue swelling. Radiographic features of cystic expansion of the short tubular bones of the hand and foot are termed "spina ventosa". Although this lesion is most often found in tuberculous dactylitis in children,10 it is also found in adult patients.

Non-radioactive iodide (I-127) as protection against unwanted intake of radioactive iodine in the thyroid gland

Blocking thyroid iodine uptake with potassium iodide is used in scintigraphy and nuclear medicine therapy with some radioiodinated compounds that do not target the thyroid gland, such as iobenguane (MIBG), which has been used to image nerve tissue tumors or to treat, or iodinated fibrinogen, which is used in the fibrinogen scan to test for clotting. These compounds contain iodine, but not in the iodide form. However, because they can eventually be metabolized or broken down to radioactive iodide, it is common practice to administer non-radioactive potassium iodide to ensure that iodide is not removed from these radiopharmaceuticals by the thyroid's normal affinity for iodide.

Potassium iodide was distributed to populations exposed to nuclear fission accidents, such as the Chernobyl disaster. SSKI iodide solution, a saturated solution of potassium (K) iodide in water, was used to block the absorption of radioactive iodine (no effect on other fission radioisotopes). Some governments now also produce and store tablets containing potassium iodide in disaster centers for this purpose. In theory, many of the harmful late cancer effects of nuclear fallout could be prevented in this way, since excess thyroid cancer, possibly due to radioiodine ingestion, is the only proven effect of radioisotope contamination following a nuclear fission accident or from contamination with atomic bomb failure. (rapid radiation from bombs also directly causes other types of cancer, such as leukemia). Taking large amounts of iodide saturates thyroid receptors and prevents absorption of most of the radioactive iodine-131 that may be present from fission product exposure (although it does not protect against other radioisotopes or any other form of direct radiation ). The protective effect of KI lasts about 24 hours, so it must be dosed daily until the risk of significant exposure to radioactive iodine from fission products is no longer present. Iodine-131 (the most common radioactive iodine contaminant in fallout) also decays relatively quickly with a half-life of eight days, so 99.95% of the original radioactive iodine is gone after three months.

of vascular origin and stroke syndrome

Middle cerebral artery

Ataxische hemiparese
Gerstmanns sindrom (Gerstmanns sindrom)
Middle cerebral artery - lower division
Middle aerebral artery - upper division

Posterior cerebral artery

Alexius without agraphia
Balintov sindrom (Balintov sindrom)
Claude syndrome
Cortical blindness (Anton syndrome)
Posterior cerebral artery - unilateral occiput
Thalamusne disease syndrome (Dejerine-Rusyjev syndrome)
Weber syndrome (Weber syndrome)

Anterior inferior cerebellar artery

Lateral Pontine Syndrome (Marie-Foix Syndrome)

Posterior inferior cerebellar artery

Lateral medullary syndrome (Wallenberg syndrome)

Basilar artery

Ataxische hemiparese
Cortical blindness (Anton syndrome)
Inferior medial bridge syndrome (Foville's syndrome)
Lateral Pontine Syndrome (Marie-Foix Syndrome)
Medial medullary syndrome (Dejerine syndrome)
Ventral Pontine Syndrome (Raymond Syndrome)
Sindrom ventralnog Pontina (Millard-Gublerov sindrom)

Vertebral artery

Lateral medullary syndrome (Wallenberg syndrome)
Medial medullary syndrome (Dejerine syndrome)

Anterior spinal artery

Medial medullary syndrome (Dejerine syndrome)

second most common lacunar syndrome)
Cerebral hemisphere: Posterior arm of the outer capsule, Punch: Basis pontis

Middle cerebral artery: Small penetrating arteries
Basilar Artery: Small penetrating arteries

Signs and Symptoms
Reactions to side events
Contralateral weakness - upper and lower extremities
Contralateral ataxia - arm and leg

Weakness is usually more pronounced in the leg than the arm; extensor plantar response; no facial involvement or dysarthria. Other locations are thalamocapsular lesions, red core, anterior cerebral artery distribution. It is also called "homolateral ataxia and crural palsy".


Gerstmann sindrom

Hemisphere: dominant parietal lobe

Middle cerebral artery
Signs and Symptoms
Agraphia (inability to write)
Acalculia (inability to count)
Right-left confusion
Finger agnosia (inability to recognize fingers)
Ideomotor apraxia


Middle cerebral artery: inferior division
Signs and Symptoms
Reactions to side events
Contralateral vision loss - homonymous hemianopsia
Contralateral visual loss - upper quadrant anopsia
Kontralateralna konstruktivna apraksija Nedominantna hemisfera
Contralateral aphasia - receptive dominant hemisphere (Wernicke's area)


Hemisphere: Left occipital region plus splenium corpus collosum

Posterior cerebral artery: collosal branches
Signs and Symptoms
Reactions to side events
Niti Alexia Splenium from a colloidal body
Contralateral visual loss - homonymous hemianopsia Left occipital region

it occurs when brain damage renders the patient unable to read.[1] Also called word blindness, text blindness or visual aphasia.[2]

Those who suffer from "Alexia" and "developmental dyslexia" may have similar problems, but "Alexia" refers to an acquired reading problem, where the ability to read is developed earlier, usually appearing in adulthood, while "developmental dyslexia" refers to developmental disabilities. difficulty reading.[3][4]

Balint's syndrome

Hemisphere: Bilateral parietal-occipital lobes

Posterior cerebral artery: bilateral
Signs and Symptoms
Side event
Both Loss of voluntary but not reflexive eye movements
Both optic ataxia - poor visual-motor coordination
Both Asimultagnosia - inability to understand visual objects
rarely occurs. Some say that the most common cause of full-blown Bálint syndrome is sudden and severe hypotension resulting in bilateral borderline infarction in the occipito-parietal region.

Claude syndrome

Midbrain: Tegmentum

Posterior cerebral artery
Signs and Symptoms
Side event
Contralateral ataxia - arm and leg

ipsilateral oculomotor paralysis with contralateral tremor and ataxia, paralysis of lower facial and shoulder muscles, contralateral hemiparesis

Antonov sindrom

Hemisphere: bilateral occipital lobes

Posterior cerebral artery: bilateral
Basilar artery: tip of the basilar

Signs and Symptoms
Side event
Both Loss of sight - bilateral
And ignorance or denial of blindness
also called Anton Babinski syndrome


Hemisphere: occipital and infero-medial temporal lobes

Posterior cerebral artery
Signs and Symptoms
Side event
Contralateral visual loss - homonymous hemianopsia Optic pathway, calcarinic cortex

Visual field defects are often the only neurological abnormalities. Other associated syndromes: alexia without agraphia, visual or color anomia.

Lesions of the peripheral region

Contralateral homonymous hemianopsia
cortical blindness with bilateral involvement of the branches of the occipital lobe
visual agnosia
dyslexia, anomic aphasia, naming problems, struggle and discrimination
memory defective
topographical disorientation

Lesions of the central territory

central pain after stroke (thalamus): spontaneous pain, dysesthesias and sensory disturbances
involuntary movements: chorea, intention tremor, hemiballism
contralateral hemiplegia
Weber syndrome: superior alternating hemiplegia) is a form of stroke characterized by the presence of oculomotor nerve palsy and contralateral hemiparesis or hemiplegia, contralateral parkinsonism (midbrain lesion)
Bálint's syndrome: loss of voluntary eye movements, optic ataxia, asimultagnosia (inability to understand visual objects

Weber syndrome

Midbrain: Base

Posterior cerebral artery: penetrating branches to the midbrain
Signs and Symptoms
Reactions to side events
Contralateral weakness - corticospinal tract of the upper and lower extremities
Ipsilaterale CN 3 laterale blikzwakte
associated injury of the substantia nigra and contralateral parkinsonism and contralateral lower facial weakness

Dejerine-Rusy syndrome


Posterior cerebral artery: penetrating branches to the thalamus
Signs and Symptoms
Reactions to side events
Contralateral hemisenzorni loss - all modalities
Contralateral hemi-body pain

Sindrom-Marie Foix

Basilar artery: Long circumferential branches
Anterior inferior cerebellar artery

Signs and Symptoms
Reactions to side events
Ipsilateral ataxia - cerebellar orbits of the arms and legs
Contralateral weakness - corticospinal tracts of the upper and lower extremities
Contralateral hemisensory loss - pain and temperature Spinothalamic tract

A lesion in the lateral pons, including the middle cerebellar peduncle.

Ipsilateral cerebellar ataxia due to involvement of the cerebellar pathways
Contralateral hemiparesis due to corticospinal tract involvement
Variable contralateral hemihypesthesia for pain and temperature due to involvement of the spinothalamic tract
an involved facial nucleus causes facial paralysis
vestibulocochlear nuclei cause ipsilateral central deafness and nystagmus, vertigo


Wallenberg syndrome

Vertebral artery: distal branches
Vertebral Artery: Superior lateral medullary artery
Posterior inferior cerebellar artery: rarer than the vertebral artery

Signs and Symptoms
Reactions to side events
Ipsilateral loss of sensation - sight - pain and temperature CN 5 core
Ipsilateral facial pain CN 5 core
Ipsilateral ataxia – arm and leg Restiform body, cerebellum
Ipsilateral gangataxia Restiform body, cerebellum
Ipsilateral nystagmus Vestibular nuclei
Ipsilateral nausea/vomiting Vestibular nucleus
Ipsilateral vertigo Vestibular core
Ipsilateral equine nucleus ambiguus nucleus ambiguus - (affecting vagus nerve and glossopharyngeal nerve - localize lesion (all other defects are also present in lateral pontine syndrome)
Ipsilateral dysphagia Nucleus Ambiguus
Ipsilateral Horner's syndrome Descending sympathetic
Contralateral hemisensory loss - pain and temperature Spinothalamic tract
Neither does Hiccup

Foville syndrome

Mon: unilateral lesion in the dorsal tegmentum of the pons in the caudal third of the pons

Basilar artery: paramedial branches
Basilar Artery: Short peripheral arteries

Signs and Symptoms
Reactions to side events
Contralateral weakness - corticospinal tract of the upper and lower extremities
Ipsilateral weakness - face - entire side VII nucleus/fascle
Ipsilateral lateral weakness of the PPRF or CN VI nucleus

Unilateral lesion in the dorsal pontine tegmentum in the caudal third of the pons.

Contralateral hemiplegia (with facial sparing) due to involvement of the corticospinal tract
Ispilateral facial palsy of the peripheral type, due to involvement of the nucleus/bundle of the VII cranial nerve
Inability to move the eyes conjugated to the ipsilateral side due to paramedial pontine reticular formation and/or involvement of the abducens nerve nucleus. That is, the patient can not look at the lesion, internuclear ophthalmoplegia.


Ventral bilateral pons

Basilar artery
Signs and Symptoms
Reactions to side events
Both weaknesses - quadriplegia of the upper and lower extremities: bilateral cortical spinal canals
Both Weakness - face - entire side Bilateral corticobulbar tracts
Nor Lateral gaze weakness Bilateral bundles CN VI
Neither Dysarthria Bilaterale nor corticobulbar pathways

Bilateral ventral lesions of the pons (ischemic or hemorrhagic) can result in this deefferent state, with preservation of consciousness and sensation, but paralysis of all movements except vertical gaze and eyelid opening.

Quadriplegia due to bilateral corticospinal tract involvement
Aphonia due to involvement of the corticobulbar tract to the lower nuclei of the cranial nerves
Occasional impairment of horizontal eye movements due to bilateral involvement of cranial nerve bundles
The reticular formation is spared, so the patient is usually fully awake. The supranuclear ocular motor pathways lie dorsally, so vertical eye movements and blinking are intact.

Millard-Gubler syndrome

Pont: Basis pontis en folders CN VI en VII

Basilar artery: short peripheral branches
Basilar artery: paramedial branches

Signs and Symptoms
Reactions to side events
Contralateral weakness - pyramidal trajectory of the upper and lower extremities
Ipsilaterale laterale blikzwakte outside CN VI
Ipsilateral weakness - face - entire side of CN VII

A unilateral lesion of the ventrocaudal pons may involve the basal pontis and bundles of cranial nerves VI and VII. Symptoms include:

Contralateral hemiplegia (sparing the face) due to pyramidal tract involvement
Ipsilateral lateral paralysis of the rectus with diplopia accentuated when the patient looks at the lesion, due to cranial nerve VI involvement.
Ipsilateral facial peripheral paresis, due to involvement of the VII cranial nerve.


Raymond syndrome

Bridge: ventral medial bridge

Basilar artery: paramedial branches
Signs and Symptoms
Reactions to side events
Ipsilaterale laterale blikzwakte outside CN VI
Contralateral weakness - pyramidal trajectory of the upper and lower extremities

Raymond syndrome (alternating abducens hemiplegia) Unilateral lesion of the ventral medial pons, involving the ipsilateral abducens fascicles and corticospinal tract, but sparing the cranial nerve. VII.

Ipsilateral lateral rectus palsy, due to involvement of the VI cranial nerve
Contralateral hemipegia, sparing the face, due to involvement of the pyramidal tract

Runyon I: Fotokromogeni

Organismi Runyon I (photochromogens) produce a yellow-orange pigment when exposed to light. Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium marinus, Mycobacterium asiaticum, Mycobacterium simiae

my mnemonic was photographed with Marines from Kansas and Asia

Runyon II: Skotokromogeni

Runyon II organisme (s

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